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The Lesser Regular Orders There is mention in the twelfth century, in Castile, of an Order of Montjoie, confirmed by Alexander III (1180), but difficult to distinguish from the Order of Calatrava, with which it was soon amalgamated.In 1191, after the siege of Acre, Richard I of England founded there in fulfilment of a vow, the Order of St.Royalty afterwards utilized this new idea to strengthen its own position or to reward faithful nobles, creating secular orders of knighthood until there was no country without its royal or princely order.Even private individuals entered into the business; adventurers attempted to exploit the vanity of the noblesse by sham insignia of knighthood with which they decked themselves, and which they distributed among their dupes lavishly -- though not gratuitously.

Its existence is attested by the Bullarium of Alexander IV and John XXII ; beyond this it has left but little trace except a church of remarkable architecture, St. Better known is the history of the Schwertzbrüder ( Ensiferi , or Swordbearers) of Livonia, founded by Albert, first Bishop of Riga (1197), to propagate the Faith in the Baltic Provinces and to protect the new Christianity there against the pagan nations still numerous in that part of Europe.Military Orders The oldest of these, the Knights Templar. After barely a century of existence, they were suppressed by Clement V ; but two remnants remained after the fourteenth century, the Order of Christ in Portugal, and the Order of Montesa in Spain.In the twelfth century Portugal had borrowed their rule from the Templars and founded the Portuguese Order of Aviz.Against these pagans a crusade had been preached; but, the temporary crusaders having made haste to withdraw, it became necessary, as in Palestine, to supply their place with a permanent order.This order adopted the statutes, the white mantle and the red cross of the Templars, with a red sword as their distinctive badge, whence their name of Ensiferi.